Native Americans First Walked the Portage.

Portage - Portage Lakes, Ohio

Marker -Brule/St. Croix Portage

Daniel Greysolon Sieur du Lhut, 1680, Jonathan Carver, 1767, Jean Babtiste Cadotte, 1819, Henry R Schoolcraft, 1820, are among the notable explorers and traders whose accomplishments are honored with plaques along the St. Croix/Bois Brule portage. Several posts back I was wondering who were the Native Americans, the chiefs, braves, leaders, fellow travelers who also walked this same portage but whose names do not appear on plaques. Here are just three notable leaders who may very well have left their footprints on this same trail. I follow with a list of others who participated in the 1837 Treaty at S. Peters who would have made the same journey. Best wishes and see you on Photo Friday. Corey

Ke-che-waish-ke - Ojibwa leader- courtesy Wisconsin Historical Society

Chief Buffalo (Ojibwe: Ke-che-waish-ke/Gichi-weshkiinh – “Great-renewer” or Peezhickee/Bizhiki – “Buffalo”; also French, Le Boeuf) (1759?-September 7, 1855) was an Ojibwa leader born at La Pointe in the Apostle Islands group of Lake Superior, in what is now northern Wisconsin, USA. Recognized as the principal chief of the Lake Superior Chippewa (Ojibwa)[1] for nearly a half-century until his death in 1855, he led his nation into a treaty relationship with the United States Government signing treaties in 1825, 1826, 1837, 1842, 1847, and 1854. He was also instrumental in resisting the efforts of the United States to remove the Chippewa and in securing permanent reservations for his people near Lake Superior ( Wikipedia Link ).

Aish-ke-bo-ge-koshe Leech Lake Ojibwa leader

Aysh-ke-bah-ke-ko-zhay (or Aish-Ke-Vo-Go-Zhe, from Eshkibagikoonzhe, “[bird] having a leaf-green bill” in Ojibwe; also known as “Flat Mouth” (Gueule Platte), a nickname given by French fur traders) was a powerful Ojibwa chief who traveled to Washington in 1855, along with Beshekee and other Ojibwe leaders, to negotiate the cession of ten million acres (40,000 km²) including the headwaters of the Mississippi in northern Minnesota.

Aysh-ke-bah-ke-ko-zhay knew who to blame for the  The Sandy Lake Tragedy that killed more than 400 men women and children. See my post on this event.

“Tell him I blame him for the children we have lost, for the sickness we have suffered, and for the hunger we have endured. The fault rests on his shoulders.” —Aysh-ke-bah-ke-ko-zhay, Leech Lake Ojibwa speaking of Territorial Governor Alexander Ramsey. He may never have traveled the portage but represented many of those who lost their lives from the Bands that lived in the Lake Superior Basin and who traveled to Sandy Lake for provisions. (Wikipedia)

Chief Tagwagané (Ojibwe: Dagwagaane, “Two Lodges Meet”) (c. 1780-1850)  – No image available – was an Anishinaabe (Ojibwa) sub-chief of the La Pointe Band of Lake Superior Chippewa, located in the Chequamegon area in the first half of the 19th century. He was of the Ajijaak-doodem (Crane Clan). His village was often located along Bay City Creek (Naadoobiikaag-ziibiwishenh: “creek for collecting water”) within the city limits of what now is Ashland, Wisconsin.

During the signing of the 1842 Treaty of La Pointe, Father Chrysostom Verwyst, according to the Wisconsin Historical Society, was informed by Chief Tagwagané of a copper plate his family used for time reckoning. Based on the description Verwyst gave, William Whipple Warren concluded that Chief Tagwagané’s ancestors first arrived in the Chequamegon Bay area sometime around 1490 (Wikipedia)

The following Signators of the 1837 Treaty of St. Peters ( Treaty of 1837 Bad River Band Website ) from the St. Croix, the La Pointe, the Lac du Flambeau, the Lac Courte Oreilles, and the Snake River Bands made their way to then, St. Peters, now, Mendota located at the confluence of the Mississippi and the Minnesota rivers. Many of the delegates most likely traveled the route I’ll be taking crossing the portage at Brule/St. Croix. They may also have paddled down the Namekagon to join the St. Croix or gone overland for part of the journey to the St. Croix and on to St. Peters. Their ancestors are those who showed du Lhut the way back in 1680.

#↓ Location↓ Recorded Name↓ Name (Translation/”Alias”)↓ Title↓
01 Leech Lake Aish-ke-bo-ge-koshe Eshkibagikoonzhe (Flat Mouth) Chief
02 Leech Lake R-che-o-sau-ya [1] Gichi-osayenh (Elder Brother) Chief
03 Leech Lake Pe-zhe-kins Bizhikiins (Young Buffalo) Warrior
04 Leech Lake Ma-ghe-ga-bo [2] Nayaajigaabaw (“la Trappe“) Warrior
05 Leech Lake O-be-gwa-dans (Chief of the Earth) Warrior
06 Leech Lake Wa-bose Waabooz (Rabbit) Warrior
07 Leech Lake Che-a-na-quod Chi-aanakwad (Big Cloud) Warrior
08 Gull Lake and Swan River Pa-goo-na-kee-zhig Bagone-giizhig (Hole in the Day) Chief
09 Gull Lake and Swan River Songa-ko-mig Zoongakamig (Strong Ground) Chief
10 Gull Lake and Swan River Wa-boo-jig Waabojiig (White Fisher) Warrior
11 Gull Lake and Swan River Ma-cou-da Makode’ (Bear’s Heart) Warrior
12 St. Croix River Pe-zhe-ke Bizhikiinh (Buffalo) Chief
13 St. Croix River Ka-be-ma-be Gaa-bimabi (He that sits to the side/”Wet mouth”) Chief
14 St. Croix River Pa-ga-we-we-wetung Bigiiwewewidang (Coming Home Hollering) Warrior
15 St. Croix River Ya-banse Ayaabens (Young Buck) Warrior
16 St. Croix River Kis-ke-ta-wak Giishkitawag (Cut Ear) Warrior
17 Lac Courte Oreilles Band Pa-qua-a-mo Bakwe’aamoo (Woodpecker) Chief
18 Lac du Flambeau Band Pish-ka-ga-ghe Apishkaagaagi (Magpie/”White Crow”) Chief
19 Lac du Flambeau Band Na-wa-ge-wa (Knee) Chief
20 Lac du Flambeau Band O-ge-ma-ga (Dandy) Chief
21 Lac du Flambeau Band Pa-se-quam-jis (Commissioner) Chief
22 Lac du Flambeau Band Wa-be-ne-me [3] Waabinimikii (White Thunder) Chief
23 La Pointe Band Pe-zhe-ke Bizhiki (Buffalo) Chief
24 La Pointe Band Ta-qua-ga-na Dagwagaane (Two Lodges Meet) Chief
25 La Pointe Band Cha-che-que-o Chief
26 Mille Lacs Indians Wa-shask-ko-kone Wazhashkokon (Muskrat’s Liver) Chief
27 Mille Lacs Indians Wen-ghe-ge-she-guk Wenji-giizhigak (First Day) Chief
28 Mille Lacs Indians Ada-we-ge-shik Edawi-giizhig (Both Ends of the Sky) Warrior
29 Mille Lacs Indians Ka-ka-quap (Sparrow) Warrior
30 Sandy Lake Band Ka-nan-da-wa-win-zo Gaa-nandawaawinzo (Ripe-Berry Hunter/”le Brocheux“) Chief
31 Sandy Lake Band We-we-shan-shis [4] Gwiiwizhenzhish (Bad Boy/”Big Mouth”) Chief
32 Sandy Lake Band Ke-che-wa-me-te-go Gichi-wemitigo (Big Frenchman) Chief
33 Sandy Lake Band Na-ta-me-ga-bo Netamigaabaw (Stands First) Warrior
34 Sandy Lake Band Sa-ga-ta-gun Zagataagan (Spunk) Warrior
35 Snake River Naudin Noodin (Wind) Chief
36 Snake River Sha-go-bai Shák’pí [5] (“Little” Six) Chief
37 Snake River Pay-ajik Bayezhig (Lone Man) Chief
38 Snake River Na-qua-na-bie Negwanebi ([Tallest Quill-]Feather) Chief
39 Snake River Ha-tau-wa [6] Odaawaa (Trader/”Ottawa”) Warrior
40 Snake River Wa-me-te-go-zhins Wemitigoozhiins (Little Frenchman) Warrior
41 Snake River Sho-ne-a Zhooniyaa (Silver) Warrior
42 Fond du Lac Band Mang-go-sit Maangozid (Loon’s Foot) Chief
43 Fond du Lac Band Shing-go-be Zhingobiinh (Spruce) Chief
44 Red Cedar Lake Mont-so-mo (Murdering Yell)
45 Red Lake Francois Goumean [7] François Gourneau half breed
46 Leech Lake Sha-wa-ghe-zhig (Sounding Sky) Warrior
47 Leech Lake Wa-zau-ko-ni-a Wezaawikonaye (Yellow Robe) Warrior
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